- Recoil in a free nucleus during gamma ray emission.
- Gamma ray energy distributions for emission and absorption in free atoms. The overlap is shown shaded and not to scale as it is extremely small.
- Example Mössbauer spectrum showing the simplest case of emitter and absorber nuclei in the same environment. The uncertainty in the energy of the excited state, , is shown exaggerated.
- The effect on the nuclear energy levels for a
transition, such as in Fe or Sn, for an asymmetric charge distribution. The magnitude of quadrupole splitting, is shown.
- The effect of magnetic splitting on nuclear energy levels in the absence of quadrupole splitting. The magnitude of splitting is proportional to the total magnetic field at the nucleus.
- The effect of a first-order quadrupole perturbation on a magnetic hyperfine spectrum for a
transition. Lines 2,3,4,5 are shifted relative to lines 1,6.
- Decay scheme of Fe following excitation of the
- Probability of a 7.3keV K-conversion electron reaching the absorber surface in metallic iron.
- Effect of moment alignment on magnetisation: (a) Single magnetic moment, , (b) two identical moments aligned parallel and (c) antiparallel to each other.
- Typical effect on the magnetisation, , of an applied magnetic field, , on (a) a paramagnetic system and (b) a diamagnetic system.
- Schematic of a magnetisation hysteresis loop in a ferromagnetic material showing the saturation magnetisation, , coercive field, , and remanent magnetisation, . Virgin curves are shown dashed for nucleation (1) and pinning (2) type magnets.
- The process of magnetisation in a demagnetised ferromagnet.
- Shape of hysteresis loop as a function of
, the angle between anisotropy axis and applied field , for: (a)
- Rotation of sublattice magnetisation under an applied field, , perpendicular to the spin axis.
- Variation of reciprocal susceptibility with temperature for: (a) antiferromagnetic, (b) paramagnetic and (c) diamagnetic ordering.
- Variation of saturation magnetisation below, and reciprocal susceptibility above for: (a) ferromagnetic and (b) ferrimagnetic ordering.
- Superconductor enclosing a non-superconducting region.
- Superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) as a simple magnetometer.
- Critical measuring current, , as a function of applied magnetic field.
- Decay scheme for a Co source leading to gamma-ray emission. Internal conversion accounts for the remaining of
- Mössbauer spectrometer schematic.
- CEMS detector used at Liverpool University.
- Illustration of an RSO measurement with a small amplitude. (a) shows the ideal SQUID response for a dipole and (b) shows the movement of the sample within the SQUID pickup coils.
- Variation of the indirect exchange coupling constant, , of a free electron gas in the neighbourhood of a point magnetic moment at the origin .
- The atomic positions in the C15 MgCu Cubic Laves Phase unit cell.
- Schematic of the Laves Phase sample construction.
- Comparison of spectra of DyFe, YFe and HoFe thin films at room temperature under zero applied field.
- 750Å DyFe thin film under
in plane applied magnetic fields.
- Spectra for 1000Å YFe thin film under
in plane applied fields.
- Spectra for
- Exchange coupling between iron sublattices in DyFe/YFe multilayers.
- Spectra for
- Normalised magnetisation vs temperature scans for Ce(20Å)/Fe(Å) multilayers. Cerium layer thickness is constant.
- Normalised magnetisation vs temperature curves for Ce(27Å)/Fe(Å) multilayers. Cerium layer thickness is constant.
- Normalised magnetisation vs temperature scans for Ce(Å)/Fe(10Å) multilayers.
- Normalised magnetisation vs temperature scans for Ce(Å)/Fe(15Å) multilayers.
- Normalised magnetisation vs temperature scans for Ce(Å)/Fe(20Å) multilayers.
- Percentage change in resistance under an applied field for the
- Exploded view of a Ce/Fe multilayer showing the antiferromagnetic coupling between the iron layers.
- Variation of antiferromagnetic coupling constant, , with cerium layer thickness, . The dashed line, representing a theoretical picture of oscillatory coupling, is added to guide the eye.
- Hysteresis loops taken at room temperature for all measured Ce/Fe samples. The magnetisation is normalised relative to the iron layers volume only. The hysteresis loop for the 20/10 sample is shown truncated in the main plot for clarity, but is compared to the other loops in the inset.
- CEMS spectra for U/Fe multilayers:
. The spectra are unaffected by the uranium layer thicknesses.
- CEMS spectra for U/Fe multilayers:
. Increasing crystallinity is observed within the iron layers as the thickness increases.
- DCEMS spectra recorded from the
sample. Spectrum (a) is obtained from the top bilayers in the sample, whilst spectrum (b) was recorded from the remaining layers underneath.
- X-ray reflectivity scans for a)
samples. Sharp peaks indicate well defined interfaces.
- Room temperature Mössbauer spectra for all toner samples.
- 77K Mössbauer spectra for all toner samples.
- FeO thin films on (a) platinum and (b) sapphire substrates. Sample (b) was grown using an oxygen plasma source.
- FeO thin film on a sapphire substrate, grown with a standard sputtering source. (a) shows the fitted spectrum and (b) shows the hyperfine field distribution.
Dr John Bland, 15/03/2003